Effect of meloxicam and lidocaine administered alone or in combination on indicators of pain and distress during and after knife castration in weaned beef calves
Meléndez, Daniela M.
Pajor, Edmond A.
SidhuI, Pritam K.
Janzen, Eugene D.
Coetzee, Johann F.
Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Karen S.
To assess the effect of meloxicam and lidocaine on indicators of pain associated with castration, forty-eight Angus crossbred beef calves (304 ± 40.5 kg of BW, 7–8 months of age) were used in a 28 day experiment. The experiment consisted of a 2 × 2 factorial design where main factors included provision of analgesia and local anaesthesia. Analgesia consisted of: no-meloxicam (N; n = 24) single s.c. administration of lactated ringer’s solution and meloxicam (M; n = 24) single dose of 0.5 mg/kg of s.c. meloxicam. Local anesthesia consisted of: no-lidocaine (R; n = 24) ring block administration of lactated ringer’s solution or lidociane (L; n = 24) ring block administration of lidocaine. To yield the following treatments: no meloxicam + no lidocaine (N-R; n = 12), no meloxicam + lidocaine (N-L; n = 12), meloxicam + no lidocaine (M-R; n = 12) and meloxicam + lidocaine (M-L; n = 12). Salivary cortisol concentrations were lower (lidocaine × time effect; P < 0.01) in L calves than R calves 0.5 and 1 hours after castration, while concentrations were lower (meloxicam × time effect; P = 0.02) in M calves than N calves at 2, 4 and 48 hours. The serum amyloid-A concentrations were greater (lidocaine × time effect; P < 0.01) in R calves than L calves on days 1, 3, 21 and 28 after castration. Haptoglobin concentrations were greater (meloxicam × time effect; P = 0.01) in N calves than M calves 24 and 48 hours after castration. Lower (lidocaine effect; P < 0.01) visual analog scale (VAS) scores, leg movement frequencies and head movement distance were observed in L calves than R calves at the time of castration. Escape behaviour during castration was lower (lidocaine effect; P < 0.05) in L calves than R calves based on data captured with accelerometer and head gate devices. Scrotal circumference had a triple interaction (lidocaine × meloxicam × time; P = 0.03), where M-R calves had greater scrotal circumference than M-L calves 28 d after castration, but no differences were observed between both groups and N-R and N-L calves. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed for average daily gain (ADG), weights or feeding behaviour. Overall, both lidocaine and meloxicam reduced physiological and behavioural indicators of pain. Although there was only one meloxicam × lidocaine interaction, lidocaine and meloxicam reduced physiological and behavioural parameters at different time points, which could be more effective at mitigating pain than either drug on its own.
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Meléndez, Daniela M., Sonia Marti, Edmond A. Pajor, Pritam K. Sidhu, Désirée Gellatly, Diego Moya, Eugene D. Janzen, Johann F. Coetzee, and Karen S. Schwartzkopf-Genswein. 2018. "Effect Of Meloxicam And Lidocaine Administered Alone Or In Combination On Indicators Of Pain And Distress During And After Knife Castration In Weaned Beef Calves". PLOS ONE 13 (11): e0207289. Public Library of Science (PLoS). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0207289./journal.pone.0207289.
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