Detection of azaspiracids in mussels using electrochemical immunosensors for fast screening in monitoring programs
Samdal, Ingunn A.
Miles, Christopher O.
O'Sullivan, Ciara K.
Given the widespread occurrence of azaspiracids (AZAs), it is clearly necessary to advance in simple and low-cost methods for the rapid detection of these marine toxins in order to protect seafood consumers. To address this need, electrochemical immunosensors for the detection of AZAs based on a competitive direct immunoassay using peroxidase-labelled AZA as a tracer were developed. An anti-AZA polyclonal antibody was immobilised in a controlled and stable manner on protein G or avidin-coated electrodes. Experimental conditions were first optimised using colorimetric immunoassays on microtitre plates, providing intermediate products already applicable to the accurate detection of AZAs. Then, transfer of the protein G and avidin–biotin interaction-based immunoassays to 8-electrode arrays provided compact and miniaturised devices for the high-throughput detection of AZAs. The low amounts of immunoreagents required as well as the potential for reusability of the avidin–biotin interaction-based immunosensors represented significant economic savings as well as a contribution to sustainability. The electrochemical immunosensors enabled the quantification of all regulated AZAs below the regulatory limit, as well as a broad range of other toxic AZA analogues (from 63 ± 3 to 2841 ± 247 μg AZA-1 equiv./kg for the protein G-based immunosensor and from 46 ± 2 to 3079 ± 358 μg AZA-1 equiv./kg for the avidin–biotin interaction-based immunosensor). The good agreement between the results obtained by the immunosensors and LC–MS/MS in the analysis of naturally contaminated mussel samples demonstrated the easy implementation of electrochemical immunosensors for routine analysis of AZAs in food safety monitoring programs.
63 - Agricultura. Silvicultura. Zootècnia. Caça. Pesca
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Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical
Leonardo, Sandra, Jane Kilcoyne, Ingunn A. Samdal, Christopher O. Miles, Ciara K. O’Sullivan, Jorge Diogène, and Mònica Campàs. 2018. "Detection Of Azaspiracids In Mussels Using Electrochemical Immunosensors For Fast Screening In Monitoring Programs". Sensors And Actuators B: Chemical 262: 818-827. Elsevier BV. doi:10.1016/j.snb.2018.02.046.
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