An Endeavor to Find Starter Feed Alternatives and Techniques for Zebrafish First-Feeding Larvae: The Effects on Viability, Morphometric Traits, Digestive Enzymes, and Expression of Growth-Related Genes
Low and variable growth and survival rates (SR) of 6–10 days postfertilization zebrafish larvae are a problem. This problem seems to be linked to starter feed characteristics. This study is an attempt to find alternatives to address these requests. For this, larvae were fed fresh and lyophilized microalgae (Chlorella, Scenedesmus, and Haematococcus), egg yolk (YOLK), lyophilized Artemia nauplii (LAN), and a combination of them. The lowest SR was observed in algae-fed larvae. All died on day 11 showing an emaciated appearance, similar to starved larvae. The highest SR was observed in YOLK- and LAN-fed larvae, which also showed an elongated anterior part of the body. Negative correlations of SR with vegfaa (vascular endothelial growth factor) and morphometric traits with igf2a (insulin-like growth factor) were also found and supported by changes at the molecular level. The presence of algae in the digestive tract of the larvae and the observation of fecal droppings indicate that the algae have an appropriate size and are palatable. The increase in the digestive enzyme activity shows the larval effort to digest the algae. The fact that the algae-fed larvae died even before the larvae were kept in starvation indicates the dramatic amount of energy that the larvae spent in microalgae digestion. Although both YOLK- and LAN-fed larvae had the highest SR, LAN group started to feed on Artemia nauplii sooner. This can be linked to the delayed growth in YOLK-fed larvae and an accelerated growth in the case of LAN-fed group. LAN is an expensive feed with negative effects on water quality, whereas YOLK is a cheap and nutritionally balanced feed with fine granular texture that contributes to a larval SR similar to LAN without affecting water quality. In conclusion, microalgae cannot be considered a suitable starter food for zebrafish, whereas LAN and YOLK can be considered good starter feeds.
639 - Hunting. Fishing. Fish breeding
Mary Ann Liebert
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Samaee, Seyed-Mohammadreza, Behrooz Atashbar Kangarloei, Farzaneh Noori, and Alicia Estévez. 2021. "An Endeavor To Find Starter Feed Alternatives And Techniques For Zebrafish First-Feeding Larvae: The Effects On Viability, Morphometric Traits, Digestive Enzymes, And Expression Of Growth-Related Genes". Zebrafish 18 (1): 73-91. Mary Ann Liebert. doi:10.1089/zeb.2020.1928.
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