Quality of Death in Fighting Bulls during Bullfights: Neurobiology and Physiological Responses
During bullfights, bulls undergo physiometabolic responses such as glycolysis, anaerobic reactions, cellular oedema, splenic contraction, and hypovolemic shock. The objective of this review article is to present the current knowledge on the factors that cause stress in fighting bulls during bullfights, including their dying process, by discussing the neurobiology and their physiological responses. The literature shows that biochemical imbalances occur during bullfights, including hypercalcaemia, hypermagnesaemia, hyperphosphataemia, hyperlactataemia, and hyperglycaemia, associated with increased endogenous cortisol and catecholamine levels. Creatine kinase, citrate synthase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels also increase, coupled with decreases in pH, blood bicarbonate levels, excess base, partial oxygen pressure, and oxygen saturation. The intense exercise also causes a marked decrease of glycogen in type I and II muscle fibres that can produce myoglobinuria and muscular necrosis. Other observations suggest the presence of osteochondrosis. The existing information allows us to conclude that during bullfights, bulls face energy and metabolic demands due to the high intensity and duration of the exercise performed, together with muscular injuries, physiological changes, and high enzyme concentrations. In addition, the final stage of the bullfight causes a slow dying process for an animal that is sentient and conscious of its surroundings.
636 - Animal husbandry and breeding in general. Livestock rearing. Breeding of domestic animals
Is part of
Mota-Rojas, Daniel, Fabio Napolitano, Ana Strappini, Agustín Orihuela, Julio Martínez-Burnes, Ismael Hernández-Ávalos, Patricia Mora-Medina, and Antonio Velarde. 2021. "Quality Of Death In Fighting Bulls During Bullfights: Neurobiology And Physiological Responses". Animals 11 (10): 2820. doi:10.3390/ani11102820.
This item appears in the following Collection(s)
- ARTICLES CIENTÍFICS 
The following license files are associated with this item:
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/