Current situation, trends and challenges for efficient and sustainable peach production
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In Spain, the total surface occupied by deciduous fruit species in 2019 was 190,414 ha. Peach is the second most important Prunus species with 77,464 ha and a production of 1,480,000 t per year. Labour is the main production cost, amounting to 45% of the total cost in 2020 and primarily involving pruning, thinning and harvesting. The common trend regarding agronomical orchard models, in deciduous fruit species, is planting intensification, combining mid to low vigour rootstocks and training systems based on small, bi-dimensional canopies. Sizecontrolling rootstocks such as Rootpac-40, Isthara or Adesoto-101, Among others, resulted in better yield efficiency and improved fruit quality compared with GF-677. In 7-year-old trees of ‘Luciana’ nectarine cultivar, the use of size-controlling rootstock Rootpac-40 and an intensive orchard trained in central leader allowed both earlier and higher yields, resulting in a difference of 102 tha− 1 compared with the standard Spanish gobolet system on GF-677. With ‘Noracila’ and the same combinations, the difference was 109 tha− 1. The central leader/ single row and central leader/double row training systems, despite requiring a greater orchard establishment cost, gave earlier and higher yields in ‘Ambra’ and ‘Luciana’ cultivars grafted on G-677, around 48% for double row and 30% for single row, compared to the Spanish gobelet system. Planar canopies allowed an efficient use of mechanical and manual pruning and flower thinning, which improved harvest efficiency (kg.h− 1) by 28%. As a result, a production cost reduction of around 15% was recorded in comparison to the Spanish gobelet system. Greater efficiency in total labour per season enabled a reduction of 39%, from 651 h.ha− 1 for the Spanish gobelet system to 398 h.ha− 1 for the central leader system. Additionally, an increase in fruit quality, particularly fruit size and SSC content, due to a more uniform light distribution was observed. In these planar intensive systems, including palmette, a reduction in light interception of 17% was recorded when compared to the open vase system. Yields obtained were more related to planting density and canopy architecture than the average of intercepted light. Currently, the central leader and bi-axis are the most important systems used in intensive orchards in Spain, with planting densities from 1,900 to 3,100 trees.ha− 1. All these results support the sustainable intensification concept and make peach tree production more economically sustainable for growers.
633 - Cultius i produccions
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Iglesias, Ignasi, and Gemma Echeverria. 2022. "Current Situation, Trends And Challenges For Efficient And Sustainable Peach Production". Scientia Horticulturae 296: 110899. doi:10.1016/j.scienta.2022.110899.
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